Curriculum Scope and Sequence

Practical Life

Students participate in exercises that instill skills in caring for oneself, for others, and for their environment. Activities include tasks that children see as daily routine in their home, along with the exercises that develop character, socialization and introduce purposeful work.

Young Child: 2-3 yr. olds

Developing Skills:

  • Large Motor (running, climbing, pushing, catching, throwing)
  • Fine Motor (grasping, wrist motion)
  • Cognitive (order, following directions, cause/effect, problem solving)
  • Social/Emotional (separation, trust, empathy,conflict resolution, expression of emotions, relations with others)
  • Care of Self and Environment
Activities Include:

  • Playground and outdoor equipment
  • Carrying materials
  • Dressing and Undressing
  • Greetings and good-bye
  • Personal Hygiene (dressing/undressing)
  • Cutting simple foods
  • Setting a table
  • Dusting
  • Sweeping/mopping
  • Pouring exercises
  • Washing dishes
  • Serving friends

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Early Childhood: 3-6 yr. olds

Developing Skills:

  • Respect of each other and environment
  • Development of intrinsic desire to refine skills
  • Penmanship
  • Overall responsibility
  • Cooperation
  • Visual and kinesthetic awareness
  • Coordination
  • Independence and self-direction
Activities Include:

  • Grace and Courtesy (respecting workspace, manners, greetings, rolling/unrolling rug, waiting for a turn)
  • Practical Skills (use of tools, sewing, food prep)
  • Care of Environment (plant care, dusting, sweeping, table/dish washing, folding)
  • Care of Self (hand washing, dressing frames)
  • Gross Motor Control (carrying and balance)
  • Fine Motor Control (scooping, squeezing, pouring, spooning, tweezing)

Lower Elementary: 6-9 yr. olds

At this age, “practical life” work becomes more purposeful and builds upon the lessons received in previous environments, correlating with the community and the world. In addition to classroom responsibilities, activities become based on experiences, allowing the children to begin to explore the larger community environment more independently. They learn to apply these skills to social situations, academic challenges, and cultural understandings.

Developing Skills:

  • Manners
  • Global awareness
  • Leadership & Mentoring
  • Cooperation
  • Independence
  • Sense of Responsibility
  • Time Management
  • Accountability
  • Self Discipline

Activities Include:

  • Daily Community Meetings
  • Active listening
  • Partner work and role play
  • Classroom jobs
  • Personal hygiene
  • Conflict Resolution
  • Goal setting
  • Community service
  • Cooking

Upper Elementary: 9-12 yr. olds

At this age, children are developing a strong sense of personal beliefs. Activities support developing independence in a realistic way that promotes confidence and self-reliance. Activities become more student-driven, with focus on “the global good,” as well as the individual. Independence and real-world life skills are incorporated into daily routines to allow students to navigate their social worlds confidently.

Developing Skills:

  • Making comparisons
  • Forming judgments
  • Reasoning
  • Increased sense of responsibility
  • Self-Advocacy skills
  • Money management
  • Long-term planning
  • Community awareness
  • Non-verbal communication skills
  • Increased memory skills
  • Leadership & Mentoring
  • Inner discipline & accountability

Activities Include:

  • Conflict resolution
  • Student jobs
  • Daily student led community meetings
  • Community service
  • Note-taking skills
  • Test-taking skills
  • Classroom management
  • Nutrition & Personal hygiene
  • Cooking
  • Map reading
  • Trip planning and organization
  • Small business skills
  • Interpersonal relationships

Middle School: 12-15 yr. olds

At this age, activities develop in children a strong and realistic sense of independence and self-reliance. Activities become sustainable, purposeful work that allows students to have real-world experiences and real-life interactions with others.

Developing Skills:

  • Empathy and Humility
  • Evaluate judgments
  • Self-Efficacy
  • Money management and business skills
  • Long-term planning and organization
  • Cultural and social awareness
  • Acknowledging non-verbal communication skills
  • Leadership & Mentoring across age-levels

Activities Include:

  • Community service projects
  • Gardening and lawn care
  • Internships internally and externally
  • Occupations
  • Small business ventures
  • Daily student-led community meetings
  • Classroom and school-wide jobs
  • Trip planning and organizing
  • Cooking



Sensorial

Young children explore and take in information through all their senses. Sensorial exercises are hands-on materials that enhance the senses to prepare students for future academic work, as well as to provide concrete exploratory experiences. These experiences allow for students to develop logic and concentration as well as continued independence.

Young Child: 2-3 yr. olds

Developing Skills:

  • Sequencing
  • Visual Discrimination
  • Auditory Discrimination
  • Tactile Discrimination
  • Eye-Hand Coordination
  • Spatial Awareness
  • Object Permanence
  • Gustatory Discrimination
Activities Include:

  • Nesting Blocks, Cylinder Blocks, Tower of Cubes
  • Puzzles
  • Color Box
  • Rough/Smooth objects
  • Sound matching
  • Smelling jars
  • Matching work
  • Food-tasting activities
  • Object permanence boxes

Early Childhood: 3-6 yr. olds

Developing Skills:

  • Reasoning
  • Discrimination
  • Discovery
  • Observation
  • Comparisons
  • Decision Making
  • Problem Solving
  • Large/Small Muscle Control
  • Spatial reasoning/awareness
  • Sound awareness
Activities Include:

  • Size (Pink Tower, Brown Stairs, Red Rods, Knobbed/Knobless cylinders)
  • Form (Geometry Cabinet, geometric solids, Bi/Trinomial Cube, Constructive Triangles)
  • Color (primary/secondary colors, shading, gradation, mixing)
  • Tactile (Touch Tablets, rough/ smooth, fabric, baric tablets)
  • Taste/Smell (smelling bottles, tasting activities)
  • Sound Cylinders, Montessori Bells (sound activities)



Language

Student lessons increase students’ ability to communicate through reading and writing. Using the 3 modalities of visual, experimental and auditory, Montessori utilizes the curriculum to increase skills and student ability. All lessons for full-day kindergarten through Middle School are aligned to Illinois State Standards for Language.

Young Child: 2-3 yr. olds

Developing Skills:

  • Conversations
  • Left to Right Orientation
Activities Include:

  • Guided Questions
  • Syntax
  • Speaking
  • Peer Modeling
  • Books
  • Language cards
  • Object/picture matching
  • Puzzles
  • Picture sequencing
  • Read Aloud
  • Classifying

Early Childhood: 3-6 yr. olds

Receptive and Expressive Language:

  • Enhance spoken language development
  • Development of vocabulary
  • Communication
  • Listen to stories and songs
  • Student is able to retell and describe stories
  • Ask/answer questions
  • Training the ear for sound

Pre-Reading Skills:

  • Developing content, comprehension and self-expression
  • Sequencing
  • Sound manipulation, classification
  • Rhyming and sound segmentation
  • Modeling main idea concepts
Composition/Creative Writing:

  • Movable Alphabet to express thoughts and ideas to story format

Reading:

  • Auditory discrimination of sounds to words with object boxes, blends
  • Association of symbols with sounds of letters via muscular, tactile, visual/ auditory senses
  • Decoding
  • Develop sight word vocabulary
  • Handwriting
  • Association of symbol with sound the Sandpaper Letters and Movable Alphabet
  • Motor/muscular memory of upper/ lowercase letter formation
  • Development of penmanship skills through Metal Insets and Chalkboard
  • Writing name, recognizing the alphabet
  • Grammar
  • Article, Noun, Adjective, Verb
  • Alphabetical Order
  • Share thoughts and ideas orally and through pictures
  •  

Lower Elementary: 6-9 yr. olds

Montessori's Great Lesson:

  • The History of Language

Listening and Speaking:

  • Communicating thoughts and feelings
  • Listen and engage actively
  • Listen and speak to gain knowledge
  • Speaking clearly and appropriately to different audiences through oral presentations

Reading & Literature:

  • Phonological awareness, letter-sound knowledge for decoding
  • Word recognition strategies
  • Reading with fluency and independent comprehension
  • Word Study skills: main idea, finding details, cause and effect, making inferences, predictions, context clues, making connections
  • Recognize age appropriate sight words using the Dolch Sight Words list
  • Reading to increase knowledge
  • Analyze literature genres
  • Read out-loud: listening to stories read out loud and actively engaging in discussion
  • Reader’s Theatre
  • Figurative Language vocabulary
  • Poetry
  • Creative writing

Research, Writing & Penmanship:

  • Compose original text
  • Apply conventions of written language using appropriate mechanics
  • Evaluate own writing
  • Editing/proofreading
  • Use writing in research using prompts, organizers, and other tools
  • Writing dialogue using appropriate punctuation and mechanics
  • Demonstrate appropriate pencil grip
  • Understanding of margins and format of writing a paragraph
  • Paragraph structure: topic sentence, supporting details, conclusions
  • Cursive writing practice
  • Application of cursive penmanship by 3rd Grade
Work Study, Spelling, & Mechanics:

  • Exposure to compound words, suffix, prefix, antonyms, synonyms, homophones, homonyms, homographs, contractions, possessives, classification, guide words, dictionary and thesaurus usage
  • Exposure to capital letters, periods, questions marks, exclamation points, quotes, commas, and apostrophes
  • Greeting and letter writing
  • Usage of the word “I” and differentiation between usage of “me vs. I”
  • Instructional leveled spelling and fluency
  • Identify spelling errors in written work

Grammar and Sentence Analysis:

  • Identifying the nine main parts of speech and their functions
  • Following singular and plural rules for grammar and spelling
  • Classifying nouns by qualities: common and proper, singular and plural, concrete and abstract, collective
  • Identify positive, comparative, and superlative adjectives
  • Conjugate verbs in past, present, and future
  • Identifying subject, predicate, and direct object of sentences
  •  

Upper Elementary: 9-12 yr. olds

Montessori's Great Lesson:

  • The History of Language

Listening and Speaking:

  • Listening actively in a variety of settings
  • Leading groups of peers in task-oriented group work
  • Develop respectful consideration for opinions and feelings
  • Take a thoughtful and attentive stance on materials and lessons presented
  • Ask meaningful questions regarding presentations and listen thoughtfully to answers

Reading & Literature:

  • Apply reading comprehension strategies in different literature genres
  • Build vocabulary and word recognition
  • Literary analysis of various authors and genres
  • Consider various perspectives on historical events and cultures
  • Making connections to real life; compare and contrast literature to other forms of media
  • Cite textual evidence to support analysis
  • Analyze “Read-Out-Louds” via group discussion
  • Read for pleasure from both fiction and non-fiction texts

Parts of Speech:

  • Correctly identify all nine basic parts of speech, as well as advanced parts of speech, and their functions, including various types of nouns and verbs
  • Apply, discuss, and analyze uses for grammar in writing
  • Apply rules for verb conjugation
  • Apply plural rules
Writing:

  • Accurate use of writing mechanics and use of English language
  • Creative writing that incorporates various elements of study and genre
  • Accurate application of figurative language concepts in creative writing
  • Analyze and critique persuasive positions
  • Develop well crafted, multi-paragraph essays
  • Compose essays of various purpose
  • Develop organizational skills, such as use of graphic organizers or outlining
  • Cite sources in appropriate format for non-fiction essays

Sentence Analysis:

  • Understand the concept of complete, complex, and compound sentence
  • Identify subject, predicate, direct/indirect object, and their functions
  • Identify adverbial modifiers, attributives, appositives, predicate complements, nominatives, and prepositional phrases
  • Construct and diagram sentences with Montessori materials and traditional sentence diagramming
  •  

Word Study/Punctuation:

  • Identify and classify words by etymology
  • Identify challenge words and use literary strategies to determine and apply meaning
  • Correctly punctuate writing, including dialogue
  • Proper mechanic usage, including proper nouns
  • Editing and proof reading
  • Peer editing
  •  

Middle School: 12-15 yr. olds

Writing:

  • Develop fluency with multiple styles and genres of writing
  • Short and long essay form
  • Note taking skills
  • Mechanics and grammar
  • Peer editing
  • 9th year commencement speeches
  • Semester long research projects
  • Presentation skills
  • 9th year Action Research Projects
  • Proper abstracts, theses, conclusions

Vocabulary and Spelling:

  • Sadler-Oxford Vocabulary series
  • Greek, Latin, and other stem of etymology
  • SAT vocabulary prep and study of SAT material

Parts of Speech:

  • Correctly identify all nine basic parts of speech, as well as advanced parts of speech, and their functions, including various types of nouns and verbs
  • Apply, discuss, and analyze uses for grammar in writing
  • Apply rules for verb conjugation
  • Apply plural rules
Literature Studies:

  • Short stories/ Poetry/ Literary elements
  • Figurative language
  • Anthologies
  • Responses and Analysis
  • Annotating text
  • Shakespeare/ literary text
  • Literature reviews
  • Vocabulary in literature
  • Historical connections
  • Article responses and current events
  • Taking notes/ reading for fluency



Math

Students are introduced to math concepts with hands-on, manipulative materials. Counting, operations, and memorization are developed through exposure and repetition to help develop the Mathematical Mind. Students participate in one-on-one, small group, and large group activities. Lessons for full-day kindergarten through Middle School are aligned to meet, or in most instances, exceed Illinois State Math standards.

Young Child: 2-3 yr. olds

Children utilize the sensorial activities in the classroom for math preparation. Through tactile exploration students develop the skills of one-to-one correlation, counting to 10 and matching symbol to quantity.

Early Childhood: 3-6 yr. olds

Intro to numbers:

  • One-to-one correspondence, numerical names, matching quantity to symbol, sequencing, writing numbers, odd/even

Linear and skip counting:

  • Place value, tens, teens, greater than/less than, exposure to multiplication
  • The Decimal System

Supplemental math: fractions, time, money, graphing:

  • Introduction to fractions of a whole (whole, half, thirds, fourths)
  • Names and symbols for coin and dollar value as well as equivalencies for money
  • Understanding place value, exchanging, matching, understanding 4 digit numbers, using 0 as a placeholder
Operations and Math facts:

  • Addition, Multiplication, Subtraction, Division

Measurement

  • Introduction to the passage of time (month, day, week, year)
  • Symbols for reading an analog clock (hour, half hour, quarter of and quarter after, minutes)
  • Exposure to different types of graphs, collecting data and making predictions

Lower Elementary: 6-9 yr. olds

Montessori's Great Lesson:

  • The History of Numbers

Quantity and Numbers:

  • Quantities and values to 10, teens, 1-100
  • Writing numbers
  • Greater than/less than, odd/even
  • Formation of numbers to the millions
  • Sequencing and order, ordinal positions
  • Estimation and rounding

Place Value:

  • Using place value to represent whole numbers and decimals

Fractions:

  • Fraction Concepts: vocabulary, improper/mixed, nomenclature, representation
  • All 4 operations with fraction manipulative materials
  • Decimal fractions
  • Money
  • Simplification of fractions, equivalencies, Greatest Common Factor
Geometry:

  • Shape nomenclature, creating patterns, relationships between two figures, 2-D and 3-D figures
  • Types of and measurement of angles
  • Shape attributes size
  • Nomenclature matching and identification
  • Practical application of measurement, area, and perimeter of quadrilaterals
  • Exploring shape, size, symmetry, congruency, and scale
  • Reading multi-digit whole numbers and decimals

- Whole Number Operations and Fact Memorization
- Multiples and Factors
 
Supplemental Math:

  • Time (analog, digital, hour, half hour, 5 min. intervals, quarter of & quarter after, elapsed time)
  • Measurement (attributes of length, area, weight/mass, capacity, and temperature
  • Introduction to metric measurement terminology
  • Problem solving (one-step problem solving with all 4 operations, multi-step problems with all 4 operations, word problems with money, time, place value, numeration, and estimation)
  • Graphing (grids and picture graphs, bar graph, pie graph, Venn diagrams, tables
  • Probability
  • Mean, median, mode
  • Squaring, Cubing
  • Intro to binomials

Upper Elementary: 9-12 yr. olds

Initial presentations are given with concrete materials, but most students are working at or towards full abstraction without the need of materials for most operational activities.

Montessori's Great Lesson:

  • The History of Numbers

Math Operations:

  • All 4 operations explored in multi-digit form

Multiples:

  • In-depth exploration of Greatest Common Factor (GCF), Lowest Common Multiple (LCM), prime and composite numbers

Properties:

  • Communicative, associative, distributive, and divisibility

Fractions and Decimals:

  • Equivalent, proper/improper, simplification
  • Unlike denominators with all 4 operations
  • Mixed numbers with all 4 operations, including unlike denominators
  • Fraction and decimal equivalency
  • Decimal operations (all 4)
  • Decimal place value (identification, reading/writing, expanded notation)

Ratio and Percent:

  • Decimal, fraction, percent forms, proportion

Algebraic Concepts:

  • Power of numbers, squaring, cubing, bases
  • Binomials & trinomials
  • Pre-Algebra
  • Square roots, integers, negative numbers

Geometry:

  • Identifying shapes by sides
  • Measurement
  • Area & Perimeter: all polygons
  • Identification and measurement of angles
  • Calculation of formulas
  • Translations, slides, reflections, symmetry, tessellations, graphs, and coordinate planes
  • Polygons
  • Similar, congruent, and equivalent shapes
  • Apply polygon knowledge to perimeter and area
  • Formulas with circles: pi, circumference, area
  • Volume
  • Work with triangles
  • Pythagorean theorem
  • All 4 operations with percents
  • Identifying ratios
  • Percent conversions
  • Word problems with percents

Statistics and Probability:

  • Mean, median, mode, range
  • Frequency
  • Graphing and interpreting data
  • Measurement
  • Non-standard units of measure
  • Conversions
  • Distance, Rate, Time
  • Area & Volume
  • Mass
  • Weight/force
  • Temperature

Middle School: 12-15 yr. olds

Students and the math instructor meet three times a week for approximately one hour. Students work independently on math five days a week. All lessons are aligned with National Common Core Math Standards and are a natural progression from the Elementary Montessori math program. Students progress in math based on ability level and work ethic.


Math 8/7
Math 8/7 is the culmination of Saxon Math for Middle Grades, reviewing arithmetic calculation, measurements, basic geometry and other foundational concepts and skills. At the same time, Math 8/7 includes extensive pre-algebra exercises, preparing the student for upper-level mathematics.

Algebra ½ (Pre-Algebra)
Algebra ½ is a course in pre-algebra mathematics, covering all topics normally taught in pre-algebra, as well as additional topics from geometry and discrete mathematics (used in engineering and computer sciences). With Algebra ½, students deepen their understanding of pre-algebra topics such as fractions, decimals, percents, mixed numbers, signed numbers, order of operations, evaluation of algebraic expressions and solutions for linear equations in one unknown. Algebra ½ is offered to Upper Elementary students that excel in math.

Algebra I
Saxon Algebra I covers all the topics in a first-year algebra course and builds the algebraic foundation essential for all students to solve increasingly complex problems. Students employ higher-order thinking skills, real-world applications, reasoning, and justification to make connections to math strands. Saxon Algebra I focuses on algebraic thinking and multiple representations- verbal, numeric, symbolic and graphical.

Analytical Geometry with Algebra II
Geometry includes all topics in a high school geometry course, including perspective, space and dimension associated with practical and axiomatic geometry. Students learn how to apply and calculate measurements of lengths, heights, circumference, areas and volumes. Geometry includes trigonometry and allows students to work with transformations. Students will use logic to create proofs and constructions and will work with key geometry theorems and proofs.

Students work on the essentials of geometry, basic angles and terminology, polygons, circles, 3-dimensional shapes, angle relationships, slope, reasoning, constructions, triangles, quadrilaterals, circles, transformations, area, Pythagorean theorem, square roots, distance formula, special right triangles, polyhedrons, volume, similar figures, trigonometry, logic and logical arguments.

Saxon Algebra II prepares students for calculus and includes explicit embedded geometry instruction. Algebra II reinforces trigonometric concepts and provides practice with statistics. Real-world problems and applications for other subjects like physics and chemistry are also included.

Advanced Mathematics
Advanced Mathematics fully integrates topics from algebra, geometry, trigonometry, discrete mathematics, and mathematical analysis. Word problems are developed throughout the problem sets and become progressively more elaborate. With regular practice, high-school level students will be able to solve challenging problems such as rate problems and problems involving abstract quantities. Conceptually oriented problems help prepare students for college entrance exams such as the ACT and SAT.

  • Students that are particularly gifted in math may be offered the opportunity to take College Algebra at Rock Valley College.

The Cultural Subjects


Science:

Young Child: 2-3 yr. olds

Cultural Subjects at the Toddler level are taught indirectly through exposure to different cultural activities, songs, books, holidays and seasons, as well as pre-math work on time and other language activities.
 
Science themed lessons give Young Child students the ability to recognize relationships and understand their role in the world, how we impact and shape what is around us, and the interconnectedness of living systems and nonliving matter. Science is taught indirectly as a preparation for further instruction later. Students are exposed to science through sensorial, language and interdisciplinary activities such as books, songs, movement games and finger plays.

Early Childhood: 3-6 yr. olds

Science, in the 3-6 classroom, begins by exploring living things, in addition to other scientific topics. Two main topics of study are botany (the study of plants) and zoology (the study of animals).

Botany

  • Root Systems and functions
  • Identifying common flowers, trees, shrubs
  • Classification
  • Types of roots, fruits, and seeds
Zoology
Integrates with Practical Life and provides the children with multi-sensory impressions of the people, lands, and cultures of other nations.

  • Animal routines
  • Animal sounds
  • Advanced classification
  • Basic needs of animals
  • Adaptations
  • Parts of and life cycles

Lower Elementary: 6-9 yr. olds

As part of Montessori’s Cosmic Curriculum, Science continues building on knowledge necessary for promoting discovery, sparking interest, research, experimentation, presentation, and technology.

Life Science (Botany, Zoology, Biology):

  • Learning to ask questions about organisms and begin to conduct factual research
  • Identifying types of vertebrates and invertebrates
  • Identifying nomenclature (parts of) of various living things, vital functions of living things, and plant identification
  • Recognize plant and animal processes, growth, and life cycles
Physical & Earth Science:

  • Explore the layers of the Earth, their functions and processes
  • Space and the solar system
  • Plate tectonics, parts of volcanoes, mountains, rivers, and other geographical features
  • Land/water forms
  • Explore properties of matter, processes of attraction, gravity, magnetism, light, electricity, sound
  • Rock and water cycle
  • Basic chemical reactions
  • Human body, systems, and functions
  • Introduction to and exploration of the Scientific method

Upper Elementary: 9-12 yr. olds

Students in Upper Elementary begin to focus on the details of the natural world. Unit topics utilize hands-on experiences to teach lessons. Students also begin to incorporate more advanced research, as well as data collection and comparisons, presentations, and analysis of information. Classification of living things, as well as data and information are incorporated into all areas of scientific study.

Life Science:

  • 6 Kingdoms of Life, taxonomy (scientific classification)
  • Identify characteristics of organisms, life cycles, describe common links and connections between organisms and environments
  • Develop an understanding of structure, function, and reproduction in living systems, populations, and ecosystems
  • Understand and use classification as a systematic approach
  • Study of the human body systems, functions, and modifications of the environment
  • Biology, Zoology, Botany, Ecology, Human Body studies

Earth/Space Science:

  • Understand the essential overview of the beginning of the universe, development of four fundamental forces, formation of the planets, earth, and basic scientific principals
  • Develop an appreciation for the scope and breadth of natural inquiry
  • Understand the properties of earth and the characteristics of earth’s materials, structure of earth’s systems, elements
  • Relationship between the earth, sun, and moon
  • Understand the earth’s processes: hydrosphere, lithosphere, atmosphere
  • Components of soil and earth’s composition (erosion, etc.)
  • Weather and associated study topics
  • Oceans
  • Water-life
Physical Science:

  • Three states of matter
  • Motion and forces (atoms, periodic table, chemical bonds, molecules)
  • Electricity
  • Physics and simple machines
  • Chemistry
  • Scientific method and research inquiry
  • Technology: function and practical use of computers, basic programming and coding, basic statistical analysis

Middle School: 12-15 yr. olds

Middle School science is on a three-year rotation that incorporates biology, physics, chemistry, general and earth science. Students carry out experiments using the Science Explorer book series, use manipulatives, conduct research, and give dynamic presentations each week on the material they studied. We emphasize basic concepts, facts, how new knowledge is discovered and validated, the process of science and the influence of science on society. We promote scientific literacy by providing students with opportunities to acquire and utilize critical thinking skills and knowledge of science and technology.

Year A- Life Science (Biology)
The life science curriculum includes the study of Connections (cells and living things), Exploration (virus, monera, protista, and fungi), Identity (genetics), Systems (animal systems), and Interdependence (ecosystems and environmental science). Botany and Zoology are part of the curriculum at Nature’s Classroom. Students do personal work and group work related to all of these themes. The focus is on seeing connections between all forms of life, how life can be successfully sustained or diminished, and scientific factors that affect our planet and the life that inhabits it. Students develop creative projects, complete experiments, demonstrate labs, and make presentations to the class based on their research.

Year B- Earth Science (Geology)
The earth science curriculum includes the study of Foundations (the scientific method), Obstacles (acids, bases, dynamics), Trials (atmospheric science), Influence (fossils, Ice Ages, dinosaurs), and Synergy (ecological taxonomy, biomes). Students do personal work and group work related to all of these themes. The focus is on seeing the relationship between science and history in the formation of Earth, the timeline of life, and the progression of scientific discovery throughout time. Students develop creative projects, investigate scientific ideas, share lab work, and make presentations to the class based on their research.

Year C- Physical Science (Chemistry/ Physics)
The physical science curriculum includes the study of Forces (motion and energy), Structures (chemistry and matter), Power (power, energy, and waves), Changes (work and machines), and Balance (science and technology). Students do personal work and group work in these themes. The focus is on asking large questions, looking for patterns in science, conceptualizing how physics and chemistry affect our scientific future and integrating this information into all disciplines. Students develop creative projects, make hypotheses, test chemical experiments and give presentations to the class based on their research.



History & Geography

Early Childhood: 3-6 yr. olds

Geography: In the 3-6 classroom, the subject of geography introduces children to the different cultures around the world and how they relate to our own culture, community and world. In addition to maps and landforms, students explore various differences between the world’s vast cultures. Some lessons include:

  • Develop the concept and shape of the earth and the model of the globe
  • Learn relative locations and names of the continents and oceans, cardinal directions and simple map skills
  • Introduction to the biomes and types of animals that live on different continents
  • Introduction to symbols and flags

History
The development of time integrates with the math curriculum that promotes awareness and understanding on how time relates to the world

  • Common vocabulary to explain the passage of time and units of time
  • Calendar
  • Days of week, months of year
  • Seasons

Culture
Integrates with Practical Life and provides the children with multi-sensory impressions of the people, lands, and cultures of other nations

  • Continent Studies
  • Holidays
  • Cultural Celebrations

Elementary

In the Elementary classrooms, students explore history and geography in 3-year cycles, focusing on Montessori’s Cosmic Curriculum. In geography, the focus is geological history, physical geography, earth science, and various geographical concepts, including maps, geographical locations, landmarks, landforms, and world cultures. In history, students focus on the creation of the universe, evolution of life on Earth, and follow the world’s historical timeline chronologically through important historical events.

Lower Elementary: 6-9 yr. olds

Geography: Students receive lessons in political and economic geography, as well as scientific geography.

  • Map skills: identifying and labeling continents, countries, capitals, oceans, rivers, mountains, important land marks, and cardinal directions
  • Identifying human characteristics of places, biomes, continents, and countries
  • Describing where goods are produced and the interdependency of people
  • Locate and describe natural resources of countries and states
  • Identify 50 states of the U.S.
  • Identify the capitals of the 50 states

History: The Great Lessons: The Creation of the Universe, The Coming of Life, The Coming of Humans.

  • Understand basic concept of past, present, and future
  • Fundamental needs of humans and their relationships to biomes and cultures
  • Origins of holidays and celebrations
  • Ancient civilizations
  • Understanding historical timelines
  • US history
  • Local history

Upper Elementary: 9-12 yr. olds

Geography: Students elaborate on the basic geographical skills learned in Lower Elementary by incorporating intellectual reasoning to geographical studies, such as exploring the roles within societies, morality in social interactions on a local and global scale, and more advanced research.

  • Empower students to understand the world in spatial terms
  • Enrich knowledge of vocabulary of geographic features
  • Enable students to use maps and other representational tools, as well as technology, to acquire knowledge
  • Enable students to create and use mental maps to organize information about people, places, and environments
  • Analyze the spatial organization of people, places, and environments on Earth
  • Elaborate on mapping and identification skills
  • Units work from the larger concept to the smaller
  • Annual Cultural Day celebration, based on the year’s cultural continent
  • Studies of the U.S. and Illinois geography

History: Great Lessons: The Creation of the Universe, The Coming of Life, The Coming of Humans.

  • Comprehend the development of geological time
  • Understand the existence of modern humans in relationship to time
  • Fundamental Needs of Humans by various categories (biome, geographical location, time period, technological advances, ancient civilization, etc.)
  • Important world events
  • US history spanning the colonization of North America, through the 13 Colonies and Revolutionary Wart, Civil War, Westward Expansion, Industrial Revolution, Great Depressions, World Wars, through modern history
  • Extensive exploration of local Rockford history

Middle School: 12-15 yr. olds

Middle school social science is on a three-year rotation that incorporates current history, ancient history, geography, sociology and philosophy. Students conduct research, take notes, analyze current events, lead discussions and give dynamic presentations on the material they study. We encourage students to be able to comprehend and respond to their world in an informed and respectful manner. We promote knowledge and appreciation of global cultures, world geography and current international events.

Year A- Social Sciences I (History of People)
This course includes geography and history. The geography curriculum includes the study of themes of location, place, movements, regions and interaction of people and their environment. The history curriculum focuses on the history of people and the following topics: Connections (Native American culture), Exploration, Identity (immigration), Systems (economics and economic systems), Interdependence (social justice and future visions). Students do personal and group work in these themes. The focus is on intense research into topics surrounding the migration and ways of peoples, looking for patterns in history and integrating this information into all disciplines. Students develop creative projects and make presentations based on their research.

Year B- Social Sciences II (Errors of People)
This course includes geography and history. The geography curriculum includes the study of the themes of location, place, movements, regions and interaction of people and their environment. The history curriculum focuses on the errors of people and the following topics: Foundations (ancient civilizations, society), Obstacles (epidemics, disasters, depressions), Trials (civil wars, decolonization), Influence (Renaissance), Synergy (colonialism, imperialism). Students do personal and group work in these themes. The focus is on intense research into topics surrounding the hardships and mistakes of people, looking for patterns in history and integrating this information into all disciplines. Students develop creative projects and make presentations based on their research.

Year C- Social Sciences III (Progress of People)
This course includes geography and history. The geography curriculum includes the study of the themes of location, place, movements, regions and interaction of people and their environment. The history curriculum focuses on the errors of people and the following topics: Forces (revolutions), Structures (governments and the U.S. Government), Power (human rights movements), Changes (the Industrial Revolution), Balance (peace education). Students participate in individual and group work related to these themes. The focus is on intense research surrounding the advancements of people, looking for patterns in history and integrating this information into all disciplines. Students develop creative projects and make presentations based on their research.



Physical Education

Physical education includes complete wellness and opportunities for movement and physical activity as well as personal, emotional, consumer, and social health. Students have opportunities to develop and improve fine and gross motor skills and coordination as well as learning how to relate to peers, adults and the community.

Young Child: 2-3 yr. olds

Students receive multiple opportunities for movement during the school day including large motor, small motor and coordination activities in our outdoor space, specifically designed for Toddlers.

Early Childhood: 3-6 yr. olds

Gross motor is in integrated within the Montessori classroom. Including opportunities for movement and physical activity. Students have opportunities to develop and improve fine and gross motor skills and coordination as well as learning how to relate to peers, adults and the community.

Control of Movement

  • Apply competent motor skills and movement patterns to different physical activities
  • Understand concepts, principles, strategies and tactics for movement
  • Respectful conduct and promotion of good sportsmanship, responsibility, respect for others
  • Increase communication skills and teamwork
  • Activities include: walking on the line, marching, skipping, balancing, throwing a ball, catching, parachute, soccer, strength and conditioning, cooperative indoor/outdoor games

Lower Elementary: 6-9 yr. olds

Students receive multiple opportunities for movement during the school day including large motor, small motor, and coordination activities as well as body awareness in the classroom and various outdoor spaces. Students receive an hour of dedicated physical education weekly. These lessons include Physical and Health education.

Physical Education

  • Apply competent motor skills and movement patterns to different physical activities
  • Understand concepts, principles, strategies and tactics for movement
  • Respectful conduct and promotion of good sportsmanship, responsibility, respect for others
  • Increase communication skills and teamwork
  • Activities include: baseball, basketball, volleyball, parachute, soccer, kickball, strength and conditioning, cooperative indoor/out- door games, relays
  • Stretching and flexibility

Health Education

  • Effective communication, expressing emotions, coping with disappointment, influences on behavior, stress management
  • Preventions and methods for spreading germs, symptoms of sickness, how to get well, dental health, safety hazards in the home, fire and burn safety, protection against bodily fluids
  • Respect and personal boundaries, respect of diversity, bullying, appropriate and inappropriate touching, friendships, communicating kindness and respect
  • Food guidelines, classifying food sources, healthy food alternatives, meal planning, benefits for physical activity
  • Uses of medicine, harmful effects of inappropriate medicine usage, safe behavior for medicines and house- hold cleaners, reporting harmful sub- stances, strategies and risk reduction behaviors

Upper Elementary: 9-12 yr. olds

Students receive multiple opportunities for movement during the school day continuing to practice body awareness, speed and accuracy in the classroom and in various outdoor spaces. Students receive an additional two PE classes a week that are 45 minutes each. These lessons include Physical and Health education.

Physical Education

  • Apply competent motor skills and movement patterns to different physical activities
  • Understand concepts, principles, strategies and tactics for movement Respectful conduct and promotion of good sportsmanship, responsibility, respect for others and themselves
  • Increase communication skills and teamwork
  • Activities include: baseball, basketball, volleyball, parachute, soccer, kickball, team sports, recreational sports, yoga, strength and conditioning, cooperative indoor/ outdoor games
  • Stretching and flexibility

Health Education

  • Stress management, effective problem solving, depression, goal setting and coping with failures
  • Prevention and control of childhood illness, preventions for spreading germs, respiratory and digestive systems, skin care habits, first aid for choking, rest and sleep, dental health, effects of the sun, communicable/chronic diseases, asthma
  • Respect and personal boundaries, empathy, facial expressions, violence prevention, bullying, healthy/ unhealthy relationships, stereotyping and discrimination, conflict resolution, friendships, puberty, body shape, responsibilities of parenting, refusal behavior for peer pressure, resources for sexual harassment, signs of abuse
  • Cardiovascular health, classifying food sources, obesity prevention, importance of fiber, motivations for eating, benefits for physical activity, healthy weight management
  • Short- and long-term effects of cigarettes and smokeless tobacco, addiction, marketing influences, refusal skills, strategies to avoid second hand smoke, alcohol and marijuana short-/ long-term effects, internal/external influences, refusal skills

Middle School: 12-15 yr. olds

Students focus on team building, self- image, physical and cardiovascular health. They receive two PE classes a week that are 60 minutes each.

Physical Education

  • Activities include: tennis, track and field, gymnastics, strength and conditioning, and other sports that Montessori Private Academy rotates into the curriculum.

Health Education
Health Education Students participate in a personal world curriculum that incorporates healthy living and mental health awareness. The curriculum stresses:

  • Healthy relationships, stress management and sleep
  • Positive mental health
  • Communicable diseases, safety and what to do in a crisis
  • Reproduction, pregnancy and safe-sex relationships
  • Relationships with others, nutrition and physical activity
  • Harmful substances: Tobacco, alcohol and marijuana awareness, substance abuse and illegal drugs


Music

Young Child: 2-3 yr. olds

Students receive 20 minutes of music twice a week. Students have many varied beginning musical experiences and explore music through singing, moving, and playing instruments.

Skills Developing

  • Moving to a steady beat
  • Using a singing voice
  • Following a director
  • Proper playing technique of rhythm instruments
  • Musical expression

Early Childhood: 3-6 yr. olds

Students receive 30 minutes of music twice a week. Students begin to explore the way music is structured and become active music makers through singing, playing instruments, moving, improvising and creating their own music.

Skills Developing

  • Keeping a steady beat
  • Distinguishing between singing voice and speaking voice
  • Matching pitch when singing
  • Hearing and labeling musical opposites (loud and soft, fast and slow, long and short, high and low)
  • Exploring a variety of locomotor and non-locomotor movements
  • Performing simple circle and partner dances
  • Creating movements to show form in music

Lower Elementary: 6-9 yr. olds

Students receive 30 minutes of music twice a week. Students build a musical vocabulary through a variety of musical experiences and receive opportunities to sing, move, play instruments and create on a weekly basis.

Skills Developing

  • Reading rhythm and melody on a five line staff
  • Singing in harmony using canons and partner songs
  • Improvising rhythmic and melodic patterns
  • Dancing to a wide variety of musical styles and forms
  • Playing instruments with appropriate technique
  • Playing multi-part instrumental arrangements
  • Labeling musical form
  • Identifying musical styles and composers from around the world

Upper Elementary: 9-12 yr. olds

Students receive one 30 minute and one 40 minute music class each week. Students’ ability to perform and create complex music is stretched through rich musical experiences. Students are active music makers whether singing, playing instruments, or moving.

Skills Developing

  • Singing, playing, and labeling major and minor pentatonic scales, the heptatonic scale, and the diatonic scale.
  • Reading notes on the treble clef
  • Reading and performing more complex rhythms in simple meters
  • Reading and performing rhythms in compound meters
  • Singing more complex harmonies through a variety of canons, partner songs, and two part songs
  • Singing in foreign languages
  • Playing the recorder with a beautiful tone and appropriate technique
  • Performing folk dances and labeling dance vocabulary
  • Improvising and composing rhythms and melodies alone and in small groups
  • Contextualizing music into its cultural and historical origin.

Middle School; 12-15 yr. olds

Students receive 40 minutes of music twice a week. A more robust understanding of music theory and practice is given, and students are given more freedom to explore musical topics that interest them.

Skills Developing

  • Reading notes on the treble clef
  • Playing both melody and harmony on the ukulele with appropriate technique
  • Reading and playing music in flat and sharp key signatures
  • Dictating rhythms in simple and compound meters
  • Reading and performing music with changing or uneven meters
  • Improvising rhythmic and melodic phrases
  • Composing both melody and harmony
  • Labeling harmonic structure
  • Identifying historical periods of classical music and composers from each time period
  • Identifying a variety of musical styles from our culture as well as world cultures


Spanish

Early Childhood: 3-6 yr. olds

Students receive 30 minutes of Spanish instruction twice a week, as well as additional periods of conversational Spanish. Students gain an understanding of the basic vocabulary and structures of the Spanish language via games, songs, movement, stories, and Montessori works.

Skills Developing

  • Distinguishing between the sounds of English and those of Spanish
  • Responding to basic Spanish commands
  • Pointing out parts of their body in Spanish
  • Counting in Spanish 1-30
  • Identifying colors in Spanish
  • Performing greetings and goodbyes in Spanish
  • Discussing feelings in Spanish
  • Making basic comparisons in Spanish using adjectives
  • Identifying Spanish vocabulary related to the world around them (seasons, jobs, transportation, animals, sports, family, shapes, food, clothing, etc.)

Lower Elementary: 6-9 yr. olds

Students receive one 30 minute and one 45 minute Spanish class per week, as well as additional periods of conversational Spanish. Students begin to build a larger Spanish vocabulary and start to relate the language to the larger world around them. They also continue to grow their unconscious understanding of the structures of the Spanish language. They learn using a variety of mediums including Total Physical Response, songs, games, and Montessori works.

Skills Developing

  • Responding to more advanced Spanish commands
  • Identifying the cardinal directions in Spanish and reading a map
  • Counting to Spanish numbers 1-100
  • Spelling using the Spanish alphabet
  • Identifying seasons, weather, and months of the year in Spanish
  • Telling time in Spanish
  • Making more advanced comparisons in Spanish using more adjectives and understanding adjective placement in Spanish sentences
  • Identifying Hispanophone countries around the globe
  • Showing an understanding of some cultural differences between Hispanophone and Anglophone countries
  • Identifying a greater variety of Spanish vocabulary related to their wider community (clothes, animals around the world, sports, fruits and vegetables, jobs, places in their town, parts both inside and outside the body, etc.)

Upper Elementary: 9-12 yr. olds

Students receive one 30 minute and one 45 minute Spanish class per week, as well as additional periods of conversational Spanish. In addition to further increasing their Spanish vocabulary, students begin to study Spanish grammatical structures in earnest in order to begin building full sentences. They also spend more time gaining an understanding of the cultures of Hispanophone countries. They learn using a variety of mediums including Total Physical Response, songs, games, books, movies, projects, and Montessori works.

Skills Developing

  • Conjugating common Spanish verbs in the present tense to create sentences
  • Identifying common Hispanic festivals, holidays, and celebrations and understanding their cultural context
  • Using recipes in Spanish to create culturally appropriate dishes from various Hispanic countries
  • Comparing the timetables of various Hispanic countries to that of the United States
  • Understanding world geography and using Spanish adjectives of nationality to describe different peoples
  • Following complex directions given entirely in Spanish
  • Identifying different Hispanic dances, instruments, foods, famous people, books, movies, and their country of origin
  • Identifying a wide range of Spanish vocabulary related to the Hispanophone and Anglophone communities worldwide (festivals, timetables, food, stories, recipes, cinema, vacations, weather, cities, travel, theater)

Middle School: 12-15 yr. olds

Students receive one 45 minute and one 50 minute Spanish class per week, as well as additional periods of conversational Spanish. Students delve fully into the complexities of Spanish grammar and begin reading and writing complicated texts. Students are expected to understand and respond mainly in Spanish during class. They also are given the freedom to explore topics related to Spanish vocabulary and Hispanic cultures that interest them. All topics studied are related to the end goal of using Spanish in the real world. Students learn using a great variety of Montessori works, texts, recordings, movies, music, and projects.

Skills Developing

  • Conjugating all regular –AR, -ER, and –IR verbs in the present tense, as well as many common irregular verbs
  • Using comparative adjectives, reflexive verbs, and proper masculine and feminine gender rules
  • Navigating an airport, a city, a tourist office, a supermarket, etc. in Spanish
  • Using Spanish numbers to tell time using a 24-hour clock, count foreign money, measure weights and lengths using the metric system, and measure the temperature using Celsius
  • Identifying famous Hispanic dances, instruments, foods, famous people, books, movies, and understanding their historical and cultural context
  • Using a Spanish recipe to create a great variety of Hispanic foods
  • Identifying a large variety of Hispanic holidays and their cultural context as well as discussing the ways they differ from Anglophone holidays
  • Creating original stories, songs, dances, foods, and theatrical plays inspired by Hispanic works
  • Understanding basic current events in Hisphanophone countries by reading Spanish-language newspapers
  • Identifying a wide range of Spanish vocabulary in a global context (festivals, timetables, food, stories, recipes, cinema, vacations, weather, cities, travel, theater, government, hospital, news, radio, supermarket, etc.)


Art

Integrated with the Montessori classroom as well as more formal lessons on technique, art is important to provide students opportunity for self-expression. Students are provided proper guidance to have opportunities to discover the world of art, and open another door of exploration to aid in individualized development. Experiences in visual art often have a positive impact on self-esteem, self-discipline and cooperation.

Young Child: 2-3 yr. olds

Toddler Students receive integrated activities within the classroom. Students explore self-expression, creativity and fine-motor skills through activities such as chalk, paint, yarn, glue, clay, sponges and other media.

Early Childhood: 3-6 yr. olds

Students receive integrated activities within the classroom during work cycle.

Developing Skills

  • Self-expression
  • Fine-motor skills

Developing Skills

  • Lines and shapes
  • Color
  • Watercolor
  • Pin pokes
  • Weaving
  • Cutting and pasting
  • Individual artist studies
  • Seasonal projects
  • Art show
  • Exploring different mediums

Lower Elementary: 6-9 yr. olds

Build upon previous activities and lessons from Early Childhood. Art activities are integrated with Cultural and Science studies as well as other general classroom activities. Students have additional opportunities for free-creativity art at different times during the week if their studies, research and interests allow them to integrate art independently.

Art Making

  • Students apply elements of art
  • Use a variety of techniques and experiment with different tools (drawing, painting, collage, printmaking, fibers, sculpture, mixed media, technology)
  • Draw upon life experiences and imagination to create art

Historical Understanding and Visual Culture

  • Look at various artists and study how different cultures use art
  • Observe visual culture and make connections between art and other subjects, identify the roles of art makers in different cultures and times

Art Criticism and Aesthetics

  • Use art vocabulary to talk about art
  • Form opinions about art

Upper Elementary: 9-12 yr. olds

Build upon previous activities, skills, techniques and lessons from Lower Elementary. Art activities are integrated with Cultural, History, Geography, Science and Math studies as well as other general classroom activities. Students have additional opportunities for free-creativity art at different times during the week if their studies, research and interests allow them to integrate art independently.

Art Making

  • Students apply elements of art and the principles of design to create more complex compositions
  • Build upon a variety of techniques and continue to gain skills with different tools (drawing, painting, collage, printmaking, fibers, sculpture, mixed media, technology)
  • Draw upon life experiences and imagination to create art
  • Use visual perspective in compositions

Historical Understanding and Visual Culture

  • Look at various artists and study how different cultures use art
  • Observe visual culture and make connections between art and other subjects, identify the roles of art makers in different cultures and times
  • Recognize different art styles and periods

Art Criticism and Aesthetics

  • Use art vocabulary to talk about art
  • Form opinions about art
  • Analyze and interpret pieces of art

Middle School: 12-15 yr. olds

Build upon previous activities, skills, techniques and lessons from Upper Elementary. Art activities are integrated with Cultural, History, Geography, Science and Math studies as well as other general classroom activities. Students have additional opportunities for free-creativity art at different times during the week if their studies, research and presentations allow them to integrate art independently.

Art Making

  • Students apply elements of art and the principles of design to create more complex compositions
  • Build upon a variety of techniques and continue to gain skills with different tools (drawing, painting, collage, printmaking, fibers, sculpture, mixed media, technology)
  • Draw upon life experiences and imagination to create art related to topics of study
  • Use visual perspective in compositions
  • Applying care and safety in artistic exploration in terms of use of tools and equipment
  • Application of basic art concepts in student-created work

Historical Understanding and Visual Culture

  • Use art vocabulary to discuss art
  • Form opinions about art
  • Analyze and interpret pieces of art
  • Communicate feelings and interpretations of art in an evaluative manner
  • Offer thoughtful interpretations of various works of art, including peer art
  • Ability to detect movements, periods, or artists who inspire other artists’ work

Art Criticism and Aesthetics

  • Use art vocabulary to talk about art
  • Form opinions about art
  • Analyze and interpret pieces of art